Operating Limitations (Section 2)

in Rotorcraft Flight Manual

The operating limitations section contains only those limitations required by regulation or that are necessary for the safe operation of the rotorcraft, powerplant, systems, and equipment. It includes operating limitations, instrument markings, color coding, and basic placards. Some of the areas included are: airspeed, altitude, rotor, and powerplant limitations, including fuel and oil requirements; weight and loading distribution; and flight limitations.

Instrument Markings


Instrument markings may include, but are not limited to, green, red, and yellow ranges for the safe operation of the aircraft. The green marking indicates a range of continuous operation. The red range indicates the maximum or minimum operation allowed while the yellow range indicates a caution or transition area.

Airspeed Limitations

Airspeed limitations are shown on the airspeed indicator by color coding and on placards or graphs in the aircraft. A red line on the airspeed indicator shows the airspeed limit beyond which structural damage could occur. This is called the never exceed speed, or VNE. The normal operating speed range is depicted by a green arc. A blue line is sometimes added to show the maximum safe autorotation speed. [Figure 5-2]

Figure 5-2. Typical airspeed indicator limitations and markings.

Figure 5-2. Typical airspeed indicator limitations and markings.

Another restriction on maximum airspeed for level flight with maximum continuous power (VH) may be the availability of power. An increase in power required due to an increase in weight, or by G producing maneuvers, may decrease VH. A decrease in power available caused by increased density altitude or by weak or faulty engines also decreases VH.

Altitude Limitations

If the rotorcraft has a maximum operating density altitude, it is indicated in this section of the flight manual. Sometimes the maximum altitude varies based on different gross weights.

Rotor Limitations

Low rotor revolutions per minute (rpm) does not produce sufficient lift, and high rpm may cause structural damage, therefore rotor rpm limitations have minimum and maximum values. A green arc depicts the normal operating range with red lines showing the minimum and maximum limits. [Figure 5-3]

Figure 5-3. Markings on a typical dual-needle tachometer in a reciprocating-engine helicopter. The outer band shows the limits of the superimposed needles when the engine is turning the rotor. The inner band indicates the power-off limits.

Figure 5-3. Markings on a typical dual-needle tachometer in a reciprocating-engine helicopter. The outer band shows the limits of the superimposed needles when the engine is turning the rotor. The inner band indicates the power-off limits.

There are two different rotor rpm limitations: power-on and power-off. Power-on limitations apply anytime the engine is turning the rotor and is depicted by a fairly narrow green band. A yellow arc may be included to show a transition range, which means that operation within this range is limited due to the possibility of increased vibrations or harmonics. This range may be associated with tailboom dynamic modes. Power-off limitations apply anytime the engine is not turning the rotor, such as when in an autorotation. In this case, the green arc is wider than the power-on arc, indicating a larger operating range.

Powerplant Limitations

The powerplant limitations area describes operating limitations on the helicopter’s engine including such items as rpm range, power limitations, operating temperatures, and fuel and oil requirements. Most turbine engines and some reciprocating engines have a maximum power and a maximum continuous power rating. The “maximum power” rating is the maximum power the engine can generate and is usually limited by time. The maximum power range is depicted by a yellow arc on the engine power instruments, with a red line indicating the maximum power that must not be exceeded. “Maximum continuous power” is the maximum power the engine can generate continually and is depicted by a green arc. [Figure 5-4]

Figure 5-4. Torque and turbine outlet temperature (TOT) gauges are commonly used with turbine-powered aircraft.

Figure 5-4. Torque and turbine outlet temperature (TOT) gauges are commonly used with turbine-powered aircraft.

The red line on a manifold pressure gauge indicates the maximum amount of power. A yellow arc on the gauge warns of pressures approaching the limit of rated power. [Figure 5-5] A placard near the gauge lists the maximum readings for specific conditions.

Figure 5-5. A manifold pressure gauge is commonly used with piston-powered aircraft.

Figure 5-5. A manifold pressure gauge is commonly used with piston-powered aircraft.

Weight and Loading Distribution

The weight and loading distribution area contains the maximum certificated weights, as well as the center of gravity (CG) range. The location of the reference datum used in balance computations should also be included in this section. Weight and balance computations are not provided here, but rather in the weight and balance section of the FAA-approved RFM.

Flight Limitations

This area lists any maneuvers which are prohibited, such as acrobatic flight or flight into known icing conditions. If the rotorcraft can only be flown in visual flight rules (VFR) conditions, it is noted in this area. Also included are the
minimum crew requirements, and the pilot seat location, if applicable, where solo flights must be conducted.

Placards

All rotorcraft generally have one or more placards displayed that have a direct and important bearing on the safe operation of the rotorcraft. These placards are located in a conspicuous place within the cabin and normally appear in the limitations section. Since VNE changes with altitude, this placard can be found in all helicopters. [Figure 5-6]

Figure 5-6. Various VNE placards.

Figure 5-6. Various VNE placards.

51l0aN891BL._SX396_BO1,204,203,200_Are you ready to start your journey learning to fly helicopters? Learning to Fly Helicopters, Second Edition, provides details on the technical and practical aspects of rotarywing flight. Written in a conversational style, the book demystifies the art and science of helicopter flying.


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