# Helicopter Weight and Balance Calculations

When determining whether a helicopter is properly loaded, two questions must be answered:

1. Is the gross weight less than or equal to the maximum allowable gross weight?
2. Is the CG within the allowable CG range, and will it stay within the allowable range throughout the duration of flight including all loading configurations that may be encountered?

To answer the first question, just add the weight of the items comprising the useful load (pilot, passengers, fuel, oil (if applicable) cargo, and baggage) to the basic empty weight of the helicopter. Ensure that the total weight does not exceed the maximum allowable gross weight.

To answer the second question, use CG or moment information from loading charts, tables, or graphs in the RFM. Then using one of the methods described below, calculate the loaded moment and/or loaded CG and verify that it falls within the allowable CG range shown in the RFM.

It is important to note that any weight and balance computation is only as accurate as the information provided. Therefore, ask passengers what they weigh and add a few pounds to account for the additional weight of clothing, especially during the winter months. Baggage should be weighed on a scale, if practical. If a scale is not available, compute personal loading values according to each individual estimate. Figure 6-2 indicates the standard weights for specific operating fluids. The following terms are used when computing a helicopter’s balance.

Figure 6-2. When making weight and balance computations, always use actual weights if they are available, especially if the helicopter is loaded near the weight and balance limits.

Reference Datum

Balance is determined by the location of the CG, which is usually described as a given number of inches from the reference datum. The horizontal reference datum is an imaginary vertical plane or point, arbitrarily fixed somewhere along the longitudinal axis of the helicopter, from which all horizontal distances are measured for weight and balance purposes. There is no fixed rule for its location. It may be located at the rotor mast, the nose of the helicopter, or even at a point in space ahead of the helicopter. [Figure 6-3]

Figure 6-3. While the horizontal reference datum can be anywhere the manufacturer chooses, some manufacturers choose the datum line at or ahead of the most forward structural point on the helicopter, in which case all moments are positive. This aids in simplifying calculations. Other manufacturers choose the datum line at some point in the middle of the helicopter in which case moments produced by weight in front of the datum are negative and moments produced by weight aft of the datum are positive.

The lateral reference datum is usually located at the center of the helicopter. The location of the reference datum is established by the manufacturer and is defined in the RFM. [Figure 6-4]

Figure 6-4. The lateral reference datum is located longitudinally through the center of the helicopter; therefore, there are positive and negative values.

Are you ready to start your journey learning to fly helicopters? Learning to Fly Helicopters, Second Edition, provides details on the technical and practical aspects of rotarywing flight. Written in a conversational style, the book demystifies the art and science of helicopter flying.

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