Gyroscopic Precession

in Aerodynamics of Flight

The spinning main rotor of a helicopter acts like a gyroscope. As such, it has the properties of gyroscopic action, one of which is precession. Gyroscopic precession is the resultant action or deflection of a spinning object when a force is applied to this object. This action occurs approximately 90° in the direction of rotation from the point where the force is applied (or 90° later in the rotation cycle). [Figure 2-28]

Figure 2-28. Gyroscopic precession.

Figure 2-28. Gyroscopic precession.

Examine a two-bladed rotor system to see how gyroscopic precession affects the movement of the tip-path plane. Moving the cyclic pitch control increases the angle of incidence of one rotor blade with the result of a greater lifting force being applied at that point in the plane of rotation. This same control movement simultaneously decreases the angle of incidence of the other blade the same amount, thus decreasing the lifting force applied at that point in the plane of rotation. The blade with the increased angle of incidence tends to flap up; the blade with the decreased angle of incidence tends to flap down. Because the rotor disk acts like a gyro, the blades reach maximum deflection at a point approximately 90° later in the plane of rotation. Figure 2-29 illustrates the result of a forward cyclic input. The retreating blade angle of incidence is increased and the advancing blade angle of incidence is decreased resulting in a tipping forward of the tip-path plane, since maximum deflection takes place 90° later when the blades are at the rear and front, respectively.

Figure 2-29. As each blade passes the 90° position on the left in a counterclockwise main rotor blade rotation, the maximum increase in angle of incidence occurs. As each blade passes the 90° position to the right, the maximum decrease in angle of incidence occurs. Maximum deflection takes place 90° later—maximum upward deflection at the rear and maximum downward deflection at the front—and the tip-path plane tips forward.

Figure 2-29. As each blade passes the 90° position on the left in a counterclockwise main rotor blade rotation, the maximum increase in angle of incidence occurs. As each blade passes the 90° position to the right, the maximum decrease in angle of incidence occurs. Maximum deflection takes place 90° later—maximum upward deflection at the rear and maximum downward deflection at the front—and the tip-path plane tips forward.

In a rotor system using three or more blades, the movement of the cyclic pitch control changes the angle of incidence of each blade an appropriate amount so that the end result is the same.

51l0aN891BL._SX396_BO1,204,203,200_Are you ready to start your journey learning to fly helicopters? Learning to Fly Helicopters, Second Edition, provides details on the technical and practical aspects of rotarywing flight. Written in a conversational style, the book demystifies the art and science of helicopter flying.


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