Factors Affecting Helicopter Performance

A helicopter’s performance is dependent on the power output of the engine and the lift produced by the rotors, whether it is the main rotor(s) or tail rotor. Any factor that affects engine and rotor efficiency affects performance. The three major factors that affect performance are density altitude, weight, and wind. The Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25, discusses these factors in great detail.

Moisture (Humidity)

Humidity alone is usually not considered an important factor in calculating density altitude and helicopter performance; however, it does contribute. There are no rules of thumb used to compute the effects of humidity on density altitude but some manufacturers include charts with 80 percent relative humidity columns as additional information. There appears to be an approximately 3–4 percent reduction in performance compared to dry air at the same altitude and temperature, so expect a decrease in hovering and takeoff performance in high humidity conditions. Although 3–4 percent seems insignificant, it can be the cause of a mishap when already operating at the limits of the helicopter.

Weight

Most performance charts include weight as one of the variables. By reducing the weight of the helicopter, a pilot may be able to take off or land safely at a location that otherwise would be impossible. However, if ever in doubt about whether a takeoff or landing can be performed safely, delay your takeoff until more favorable density altitude conditions exist. If airborne, try to land at a location that has more favorable conditions, or one where a landing can be made that does not require a hover.

In addition, at higher gross weights, the increased power required to hover produces more torque, which means more antitorque thrust is required. In some helicopters during high altitude operations, the maximum antitorque produced by the tail rotor during a hover may not be sufficient to overcome torque even if the gross weight is within limits.

Winds

Wind direction and velocity also affect hovering, takeoff, and climb performance. Translational lift occurs any time there is relative airflow over the rotor disk. This occurs whether the relative airflow is caused by helicopter movement or by the wind. As wind speed increases, translational lift increases, resulting in less power required to hover.

The wind direction is also an important consideration. Headwinds are the most desirable as they contribute to the greatest increase in performance. Strong crosswinds and tailwinds may require the use of more tail rotor thrust to maintain directional control. This increased tail rotor thrust absorbs power from the engine, which means there is less power available to the main rotor for the production of lift. Some helicopters even have a critical wind azimuth or maximum safe relative wind chart. Operating the helicopter beyond these limits could cause loss of tail rotor effectiveness.

Takeoff and climb performance is greatly affected by wind. When taking off into a headwind, effective translational lift is achieved earlier, resulting in more lift and a steeper climb angle. When taking off with a tailwind, more distance is required to accelerate through translation lift.